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Identification Information
Title: Comparing Uncorrected and Corrected Bottom-hole Temperatures Using Published Correction Methods For the Onshore U.S. Gulf of Mexico
Originator: Scott A. Kinney, Ofori N. Pearson
Publication Place: Denver, Colorado
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication Date: 2016
Landing Page or Download(.zip): https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7K935QM
Landing Page or Download(.zip): https://certmapper.cr.usgs.gov/data/gulf/spatial/GC_BHT_Gradients_Data.zip
Abstract: Wireline logging temperature readings are known to be imprecise and need to be corrected to more accurately show what the formation temperature is. One issue with correcting logging temperatures is what correction factor to use. Because there are so many correction factors and they are based on different types of data and locations choosing a correction factor for a particular study area can be challenging to deal with. Some previous work has factored in only depth and other work includes time since circulation as a major component. This data set is comprised of bottom hole temperature, depth, and time since circulation that have had seven different correction factors run on the data. The data was consolidated into 6x6 mile cells and a least squared algorithm was used to create one temperature gradient (per correction factor) for that particular cell.
Supplemenatal Information: This metadata document pertains to: GC_BHT_Gradients.shp and GC_BHT_Cells.shp. All of the formulas and structural features used for these data sets can be found in: Blackwell, D., Richards, M., and Stepp, P., 2010, Texas Geothermal Assessment for the I35 Corridor East For Texas State Energy Conservation Office Contract CM709. 80 p., Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory, Dallas, Texas. Crowell, A., Ochsner, A., and Gosnold, W., 2012, Correcting Bottom-Hole Temperatures in the Denver Basin: Colorado and Nebraska. UND Geothermal Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota. Geothermal Resources Council, v. 36, p. 201-206. Deming, D., 1989, Application of bottom-hole temperature corrections in geothermal studies: Geothermics, v. 18, no. 5/6, p. 775-786. Forster, A., and Merriam, D.F., 1995, A bottom-hole temperature analysis in the American Midcontinent Kansas: implications to the applicability of BHTs in geothermal studies: Intern. Geothermal Association, World Geothermal Congress Florence, Italy, Proceedings., v. 2, p. 777-782. Forster, A., Merriam, D.F., and Davis, J.C., 1996, Statistical analysis of some bottom-hole temperature correction factors for the Cherokee Basin, southeastern Kansas: Tulsa Geological Society Transaction, p. 3-9. Forrest, J., Marcucci, E., and Scott, P., 2007, Geothermal Gradients and Subsurface Temperatures in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Search and Discovery Article No. 30048, 2007, 15 p. Gregory, A.R., Dodge, M.M., Posey, J.S., and Morton, R.A., 1980, Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs-Tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast, DOE Final Report DOE/ET/11397-1, p. 361, OSTI # 5282675. Geologic Society of America Inc, 1991, Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. Principal structural features of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, v. J, pl. 2, scale 1:2,500,00 of the Geology of North America GNA-1. Geologic Society of America Inc, Boulder, Colorado. Harrison W.E., Luza, K.V., Prater, M.L., and Chueng, P.K., 1983, Geothermal resource assessment of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Special Publication Number 83-1, 42 p. Kehle, R.O., Schoeppel, R.J., and Deford, R.K., 1970, the AAPG Geothermal Survey of North America, Geothermics, Special Issue 2, U.N Symposium on the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources, Pisa 1970, v. 2, Part 1, p. 358-367. Prensky, S., 1992, Temperature measurements in boreholes: An overview of engineering and scientific applications: U.S. Geoloical Survey, Denver, Colorado. Originally published in 1992, The Log Analyst, v. 33, No. 3, p. 313-333. Richards, M., Personal Communication, SMU Geothermal Laboratory, February 2012, Interviewer: Anna M. Crowell, in Crowell, A., Ochsner, A., and Gosnold, W. 2012, Correcting Bottom-Hole Temperatures in the Denver Basin: Colorado and Nebraska. UND Geothermal Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota. Geothermal Resources Council, v. 36, p. 201-206. Waples, D.W., Pacheco, J., and Vera, A., 2004, A method for correcting log-derived temperatures in deep wells, calibrated in the Gulf of Mexico, Petroleum Geoscience, v. 10, 2004, p. 239-245. Waples, D.W., Ramly, M., 2001, A statistical method for correcting log-derived temperatures. Petroleum Geoscience, v. 7, p. 231–240.
Purpose: Understanding subsurface thermal regimes is critical for petroleum systems analysis. The most common sources for subsurface temperatures in petroleum-producing basins are the bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) recorded while drilling wells. In basins with a long history of petroleum production, such as the onshore portion of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin, temperature measurements from wells constitute a particularly dense spatial and stratigraphic dataset from which variations in the subsurface thermal regime can be identified and analyzed. However, a primary issue with using BHT measurements is that the readings record a combination of instrument housing, drilling fluid, and formation temperatures masking the ‘true’ formation temperature. Therefore, various methods to correct BHT measurements have been developed to reflect true formation temperatures.
Progress: Completed
Frequency: Not planned
Time Period of Content
Single Date
Date: unknown
Currentness: publication date
West Bounding Longitude: -106.6
East Bounding Longitude: -87.2
North Bounding Latitude: 33.9
South Bounding Latitude: 25.9
Zoom to the resource envelope
Point of Contact
Contact Position: Physical Scientist
Address Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Denver Federal Center, MS 939
City: Denver
State: Colorado
Postal Code: 80225
Telephone: 303-236-5894
Email: skinney@usgs.gov
Browse Graphic
Browse Graphic URL: https://certmapper.cr.usgs.gov/data/gulf/graphic/GC_BHT_Gradients_Data.jpg
Browse Graphic Caption: Browse Graphic
Browse Graphic Type: JPEG
Constraints
Access: None
Use: None
Theme Keywords
Theme Reference: None
Theme Topics: Bottom Hole Temperature, Gradient, Well Logs, Thermal, Temperature, Time since Circulation
Keywords
Theme Reference: EnergyResourceActivities
Theme Keywords: oilgas, gulfroom, gulfcoastframework
Place Keyword Thesaurus: None
Place Keyword: Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Gulf Coast, USA
Data Quality Information
Logical Consistency Report: This spatial data is considered to be error-free. All point data and cells (polygon) have gradient values associated with them. All the values are positive.
Completeness Report: The well-log data used to construct the spatial data files comprise the most complete database available at the time of compilation.
Positional Accuracy
Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report: The accuracy of the spatial data depends upon the accuracy of the well-log locations used to construct the database.
Processing Steps
Step 1 Process Description: Below is an overview of the method to compile bottom hole temperatures, depth, and time since circulation data to perform a number of quality control steps, and perform several correction methods to calculate thermal gradient. The USGS has access to a proprietary database (owned and maintained by IHS Markit) that contains global well history and production data (well locations are in NAD 27 and are converted to NAD 83 using NAD 27 to NAD 83 NADCON) as well as a catalog of well log raster (images) formats. Within the composite total petroleum system for the onshore US Gulf Coast (Dubiel and others, 2007), there are 9,140 gas and oil wells with 11,277 records that contain depth, bottom hole temperature (BHT), and time since circulation (TSC) records; these comprise the database used to generate the temperature gradients. The primary data resides in an Oracle database with many tables that can be linked together based unique identifiers. This is very important because BHT and depth data resides in one table and TSC in another. The data in this study was edited first by selecting wells in the extent of the USGS Gulf Coast study area. For this study a well had to have three components 1) temperature (BHT), 2) depth, and 3) time since circulation (TSC). Two of these components (depth and temperature) exists in a table called “WELL_LOG_TRIP” and the TSC is in a table named “MUD_SAMPLE”. The tables were linked together on API number, source, and Mud Sample ID in Well Log Trip to Sample ID in Mud Sample to link the information together. After the tables were linked together any obvious errors were removed i.e. any depth that was six digits or zero, any temperature that was zero or too high (over 600 degrees Fahrenheit) to be realistic and any TSC that was over seventy two hours because it is unlikely that some mud circulation had not occurred during this long pause in drilling (Waples, 2004). A data a set of 400 plus wells were randomly chosen and the BHT information was check against the associated log header. If the information did not match the log header it was corrected to the log header information. After this first pass the dataset was graphed in Excel based on depth verses temperature and the wells that fell outside of two standard deviations (approximately 150) were selected and check against the well log header. A vector file with the extent of the USGS gulf coast study area with a gradient (six mile square cells) was created to hold (contain) the wells. A least squared (means that the overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in the results of every single equation) algorithm was run on each cell that had wells in it to create a temperature gradient for that cell. This was done for the uncorrected data as well as the seven correction methods used. In general, more data entry errors were associated with time since circulation records than with depth and temperature records. Average temperature gradients were calculated for 2,447 cells that cover 36 square miles in size. For all cells, a surface temperature of 68°F was assumed (Forrest and others, 2007).
Step 1 Process Date: 2015
Entity And Attribute Information
Overview: All the gradients are in degrees Fahrenheit per 100 ft. State: U.S. state name. County: U.S. county name. Geology: Name of the structural feature in the U.S. gulf coast area. Gradient: this is the uncorrected gradient value. Waples: This is the corrected value using the Waples formula. AAPG: This is the corrected value using the AAPG formula. Gregory: This is the corrected value using the Gregory formula. Blackwell: This is the corrected value using the Blackwell formula. Forster: This is the corrected value using the Forster formula. Richards: This is the corrected value using the Richards formula. FMD: This is the corrected value using the Forster/Merriam/Davis formula. Well_Recor: This is the number of well records in a particular cell. Well_count: This is the number of wells in a particular cell. Long: Longitude in decimal degrees. Lat: Latitude in decimal degrees.
Detail Citation: All of the formulas and structural features used for these data sets can be found in: Blackwell, D., Richards, M., and Stepp, P., 2010, Texas Geothermal Assessment for the I35 Corridor East For Texas State Energy Conservation Office Contract CM709. 80 p., Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory, Dallas, Texas. Crowell, A., Ochsner, A., and Gosnold, W., 2012, Correcting Bottom-Hole Temperatures in the Denver Basin: Colorado and Nebraska. UND Geothermal Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota. Geothermal Resources Council, v. 36, p. 201-206. Deming, D., 1989, Application of bottom-hole temperature corrections in geothermal studies: Geothermics, v. 18, no. 5/6, p. 775-786. Forster, A., and Merriam, D.F., 1995, A bottom-hole temperature analysis in the American Midcontinent Kansas: implications to the applicability of BHTs in geothermal studies: Intern. Geothermal Association, World Geothermal Congress Florence, Italy, Proceedings., v. 2, p. 777-782. Forster, A., Merriam, D.F., and Davis, J.C., 1996, Statistical analysis of some bottom-hole temperature correction factors for the Cherokee Basin, southeastern Kansas: Tulsa Geological Society Transaction, p. 3-9. Forrest, J., Marcucci, E., and Scott, P., 2007, Geothermal Gradients and Subsurface Temperatures in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Search and Discovery Article No. 30048, 2007, 15 p. Gregory, A.R., Dodge, M.M., Posey, J.S., and Morton, R.A., 1980, Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs-Tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast, DOE Final Report DOE/ET/11397-1, p. 361, OSTI # 5282675. Geologic Society of America Inc, 1991, Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. Principal structural features of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, v. J, pl. 2, scale 1:2,500,00 of the Geology of North America GNA-1. Geologic Society of America Inc, Boulder, Colorado. Harrison W.E., Luza, K.V., Prater, M.L., and Chueng, P.K., 1983, Geothermal resource assessment of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Special Publication Number 83-1, 42 p. Kehle, R.O., Schoeppel, R.J., and Deford, R.K., 1970, the AAPG Geothermal Survey of North America, Geothermics, Special Issue 2, U.N Symposium on the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources, Pisa 1970, v. 2, Part 1, p. 358-367. Prensky, S., 1992, Temperature measurements in boreholes: An overview of engineering and scientific applications: U.S. Geoloical Survey, Denver, Colorado. Originally published in 1992, The Log Analyst, v. 33, No. 3, p. 313-333. Richards, M., Personal Communication, SMU Geothermal Laboratory, February 2012, Interviewer: Anna M. Crowell, in Crowell, A., Ochsner, A., and Gosnold, W. 2012, Correcting Bottom-Hole Temperatures in the Denver Basin: Colorado and Nebraska. UND Geothermal Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of North Dakota. Geothermal Resources Council, v. 36, p. 201-206. Waples, D.W., Pacheco, J., and Vera, A., 2004, A method for correcting log-derived temperatures in deep wells, calibrated in the Gulf of Mexico, Petroleum Geoscience, v. 10, 2004, p. 239-245. Waples, D.W., Ramly, M., 2001, A statistical method for correcting log-derived temperatures. Petroleum Geoscience, v. 7, p. 231–240.
Spatial Reference Information
Geographic Latitude Resolution: 0.0000000001
Geographic Longitude Resolution: 0.0000000001
Geographic Coordinate Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic Model
Horizontal Datum Name: North American Datum Of 1983
Ellipsoid Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator of Flattening Ratio: 298.257222101
Distribution Information
Resource Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution Liability: Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The U.S. Geological survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Although this information product, for the most part, is in the public domain, it also contains copyrighted materials as noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted items for other than personal use must be secured from the copyright owner.
Address Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Denver Federal Center MS 939
City: Denver
State: Colorado
Postal Code: 80021
Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS
Fax: 303-202-4693
Email: ask@usgs.gov
Metadata Reference Information
Metadata Creation Date: 2016
Future Metadata Review Date: None
Contact Position: Physical Scientist
Address Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Denver Federal Center MS 939
City: Denver
State: Colorado
Postal Code: 80021
Telephone: 303-236-5894
Email: skinney@usgs.gov
Metadata Standard Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata Standard Version: 10.3
/geoportal/rest/document?f=html&id=%7BF07F2295-8D9C-403E-9EB7-7CDC2FB0618F%7D
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